Astigmatism: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Ever experienced blurry or distorted vision even while wearing your glasses or contact lenses? You might be dealing with astigmatism. This prevalent eye condition impacts millions globally, but with the right knowledge and care, it’s manageable. In this post, we’ll dive deep into the realm of astigmatism, shedding light on its causes, symptoms, how it’s diagnosed, and the various treatment options available to help you achieve the best vision possible.

We’ll explore everything from the different types of astigmatism to the latest treatment techniques. Get ready to journey into the intricate world of the eye. Learn how to spot the signs of astigmatism and find the most effective solutions tailored to your unique needs, ensuring optimal eye health and vision quality.

Key Takeaways

  • Astigmatism is an eye condition with symptoms such as blurred vision, headaches and difficulty perceiving in the dark.

  • It can be caused by irregularities in either the cornea or lens of the eye and may coexist with other conditions.

  • Diagnosis requires a visual acuity assessment, refraction test & keratometry. Treatment options include corrective lenses, contact lenses & surgical procedures.

Understanding Astigmatism

Astigmatism is a prevalent eye condition characterized by an irregularly shaped cornea or lens, resulting in:

  • blurry vision

  • halos

  • distorted vision

  • eye strain

  • headaches

This refractive error occurs when the eye cannot focus light rays properly onto the retina. To diagnose astigmatism, eye doctors conduct comprehensive eye exams, assessing the shape of the cornea and the visual acuity of the patient, while also considering other refractive errors.

Astigmatism manifests in two forms – corneal and lenticular, each affecting vision in unique ways. These types, like myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness), are refractive errors. We shall now delve into the distinctions between corneal and lenticular astigmatism, and their effects on our vision.

Corneal vs. Lenticular Astigmatism

Corneal astigmatism is caused by an irregularity in the curvature of the eye’s cornea, which is not spherical in shape. On the other hand, lenticular astigmatism refers to a non-uniform shape of the eye’s lens. Both corneal and lenticular astigmatism can lead to blurry vision due to light rays focusing improperly.

The distinction between regular and irregular astigmatism is also crucial to understand. A regular astigmatism is characterized by an eye that is not completely curved, whereas an irregular astigmatism has an uneven curvature. No matter the type, detecting astigmatism early and seeking appropriate treatment can minimize its impact on your daily life.

Recognizing Astigmatism Symptoms

The indications of astigmatism may differ among individuals, but common signs include:

  • Blurred vision

  • Eye strain

  • Headaches

  • Difficulty perceiving in the dark

Experiencing these symptoms warrants a visit to an eye doctor for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Astigmatism is known to cause blurred or distorted vision at all distances due to the imperfect curvature of the eye, particularly the cornea or lens, which can also lead to headaches and eye strain.

Regular eye exams play a critical role in the early identification of astigmatism and other eye conditions. Prompt identification can prevent vision loss and other potential complications, paving the way for optimal eye care.

Uncovering Astigmatism Causes

Astigmatism may be attributed to various factors, such as:

  • Genetic predispositions

  • Eye injuries

  • Surgery complications

  • Keratoconus

  • Cataracts

Studies have shown that astigmatism has a genetic component, with offspring of astigmatic parents exhibiting an increased risk. Several genes have been identified as potential contributors to astigmatism, including CLDN7 and VAX2.

Eye injuries, particularly those involving blunt trauma from accidents or contact sports, can also lead to astigmatism by modifying the curvature of the lens or cornea, resulting in an irregular shape. If astigmatism runs in your family, periodic eye exams can help monitor your eye health and identify potential issues at an early stage.

Coexisting Eye Conditions with Astigmatism

Astigmatism can coexist with other eye conditions, such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision). These refractive errors can be present independently or concurrently in the same individual. For example, a person with astigmatism may also have myopia, making it more challenging to see distant objects clearly.

When presbyopia, the natural age-related loss of near vision, is present in someone with astigmatism, it can further exacerbate their ability to focus on close-up objects. This situation calls for bifocal or progressive lenses to correct both astigmatism and presbyopia, thereby optimizing vision quality.

Diagnosing Astigmatism: The Eye Exam Process

A comprehensive eye exam is necessary to diagnose astigmatism and determine the appropriate treatment plan. This exam may involve a visual acuity assessment, refraction test, and keratometry, allowing the eye doctor to evaluate all aspects of your vision and identify any issues. The visual acuity assessment test measures your ability to read letters from a chart at a designated distance, ascertaining your level of visual acuity.

During the exam, the physician may instill eye drops that cause the pupils to expand, providing them with an opportunity to inspect the inside of your eyes more readily. Although the exam might cause slight discomfort, it’s a vital step in diagnosing astigmatism and providing your eyes with the best care.

Treatment Options for Astigmatism

Various treatment options are available for astigmatism, depending on the severity and individual needs. These options may include corrective lenses, contact lenses, and surgical procedures, allowing for a tailored approach to addressing your vision issues. Collaborating with your eye doctor is key to determining the most effective treatment for your specific case.

Mild cases of astigmatism may not necessitate treatment, while more severe cases, such as severe astigmatism, may require more aggressive interventions. The upcoming subsections will delve into various treatment options such as corrective lenses, contact lenses, and surgical procedures, helping you make an informed decision about your eye care.

Corrective Lenses

Glasses with cylindrical lenses can correct astigmatism by providing compensation for the irregular curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye. These lenses adjust the manner in which light is focused by the eye, affording additional power in specific areas of the lens. Various types of glasses are available for astigmatism, including:

  • Single-vision lens glasses

  • Bifocal or progressive lens glasses

  • Rigid gas permeable lenses

  • Soft toric lenses

By wearing glasses with the appropriate cylindrical lenses, you can enjoy clearer vision and reduced symptoms of astigmatism, such as eye strain and headaches. Consulting your eye doctor to find the most suitable lens type and prescription for your needs is important.

Contact Lenses

Contact lenses can also be an effective solution for correcting astigmatism, with various types available to suit individual needs and preferences. Soft lenses, gas permeable contact lenses, and hybrid lenses are all options that can provide clearer vision and address the irregular curvature of the cornea or lens. It’s worth noting that soft toric lenses may not be as effective in providing accurate astigmatism correction as rigid gas-permeable lenses.

If considering contact lenses to correct astigmatism, it’s important to consult your eye doctor to choose the most suitable lens type for your situation. Factors such as lifestyle, comfort, and the severity of your astigmatism will play a role in choosing the most suitable contact lens option.

Surgical Procedures

Surgical options for astigmatism include:

  • LASIK: Reshapes the cornea to correct vision by removing a precise amount of corneal tissue. This procedure can provide long-term vision correction, reducing or eliminating the need for glasses or contact lenses.

  • PRK: Similar to LASIK, PRK also reshapes the cornea to correct vision by removing a precise amount of corneal tissue. It is an alternative for patients who may not be suitable candidates for LASIK.

  • Premium lenses: These can be used during cataract surgery to treat astigmatism, providing vision correction along with the removal of cataracts.

These eye surgery options can help improve vision and reduce the reliance on glasses or contact lenses.

Bear in mind that surgical procedures to correct astigmatism come with certain risks and aren’t suitable for everyone. Consult with your eye doctor to determine if surgery is an appropriate option for your specific case and to discuss the potential benefits and risks associated with the procedure.

Orthokeratology: A Temporary Solution

Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) is a temporary treatment option for astigmatism that uses rigid contact lenses worn during sleep to reshape the cornea. By wearing these lenses overnight, you can experience clear vision during the day without the need for corrective lenses. Ortho-K can be a convenient solution for those who prefer not to wear glasses or contact lenses during their daily activities.

However, Ortho-K isn’t for everyone, and its effects are temporary. Consultation with an eye care professional is necessary to decide if Ortho-K is the best option for you and to discuss its potential benefits and limitations.

Preventing Astigmatism-Related Complications

Detecting and treating astigmatism early can ward off complications like amblyopia (lazy eye), eye strain, and headaches, thereby ensuring optimal eye health and vision quality. Neglecting to treat astigmatism may result in blurred vision, eyestrain, headaches, and poor night vision, which could negatively impact a person’s independence and quality of life.

Regular screening programs, such as photorefraction, comprehensive eye exams, and online astigmatism testing, can aid in the early detection of astigmatism and other eye conditions. By staying vigilant about your eye health and seeking prompt treatment when needed, you can prevent astigmatism-related complications and enjoy a life of clear vision.


This comprehensive guide has navigated you through the intricate details of astigmatism, shedding light on its causes, symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and potential treatments. We’ve demystified the nuances between corneal and lenticular astigmatism, provided insights on how to identify the signs of this prevalent eye condition, and presented an array of treatment strategies, from wearing corrective lenses to undergoing surgical interventions.

With this newfound understanding, you’re equipped to take decisive actions to manage your astigmatism, ensuring the best possible eye health and vision quality. Keep in mind, early detection and appropriate treatment are the cornerstones of preventing complications and maintaining a life of clear vision. Don’t let astigmatism cloud your view – seize control of your eye health now.

Astigmatism FAQ

Q: What role does refraction play in vision?

A: Refraction is the bending of light as it passes through one medium to another. Light rays refract through our eyes as they pass through the cornea and the lens, focusing on the retina. The retina converts light into messages. The optic nerve sends these messages to the brain for interpretation.

Q: What is astigmatism?

A: Normally, the curve of the cornea is perfect like a soccer ball. Astigmatism is when the cornea’s curve resembles a football instead, varying in steepness/roundness. The varying cornea shape causes light to focus unevenly onto the retina, thus leading to blurred vision at any distance.

Q: What are astigmatism signs and symptoms?

A: Symptoms include:

  • Headaches
  • Eyestrain
  • Squinting
  • Distorted or blurred vision at all distances
  • Difficulty driving at night
  • Doubling or shadowing of vision

If you experience any of these symptoms, visit your eye care professional. If you wear glasses or contact lenses and still have these issues, you may need a new prescription.

Q: Who gets astigmatism?

A: Astigmatism is common, as almost everyone has it to some degree.

Q: How is astigmatism detected?

A: Refraction methods measure and detect astigmatism, either using machine automation or completed manually. Manual refraction is the “1 or 2” test that your eye doctor performs they checking you for glasses.

Q: What astigmatism treatment is available?

A: Glasses, contact lenses or refractive surgery treat astigmatism. Also, LASIK surgery and Refractive Lens Exchange both have the ability to correct astigmatism, if needed.