Farsightedness: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Have you ever experienced difficulties focusing on nearby objects, resulting in a blurry vision that strains your eyes? You might be one of the millions of people affected by farsightedness, or hyperopia. This blog post will provide you with a comprehensive understanding of farsightedness, its causes, symptoms, and available treatments to help you navigate the challenges of this common vision problem.

Key Takeaways

  • Farsightedness (hyperopia) is a vision condition caused by an eye shape that results in objects close up appearing blurry.

  • Diagnosing farsightedness involves visual acuity tests, refraction assessments, and eye health evaluations.

  • Regular eye exams are important for early detection of vision problems and maintaining good overall eye health through protective measures such as sunglasses or hats/visors and reducing strain with simple exercises.

Understanding Farsightedness (Hyperopia)

Farsightedness, or hyperopia, is a vision condition where distant objects appear clear, while nearby objects are blurry due to the way light rays are focused in the eye. This is different from nearsightedness, which affects the ability to see distant objects clearly. Given that hyperopia affects approximately 26.5% to 30.9% of adults worldwide, timely eye exams and vision testing become pivotal for early diagnosis and effective management.

A deeper exploration of the characteristics of farsightedness, including its types and causes, along with the differences between farsightedness and nearsightedness, will enhance our understanding of this condition. This will provide a foundation for identifying symptoms, diagnosing the condition, and exploring various treatment options.

What is farsightedness?

Mild farsightedness, also known as hyperopia, is a vision condition characterized by the inability to see nearby objects clearly, while distant objects remain sharp. Affecting a significant number of adults worldwide, hyperopia prevalence rates vary based on age and region, with research indicating that it is most common for individuals between the ages of 40 and 60. Farsightedness can have a noticeable impact on daily life, making activities like reading or using a smartphone challenging.

The scientific terms for farsightedness are hyperopia and presbyopia, which are refractive errors caused by an eye shape that causes the point of focus to be located behind the retina. This results in objects that are close up appearing blurred. Vision testing basics, such as visual acuity tests and refraction assessments, can help diagnose farsightedness.

How does farsightedness differ from nearsightedness?

While farsightedness impairs the clarity of vision for objects at a distance, nearsightedness does the opposite by impairing the clarity of vision for objects at close range. The distinction between these refractive errors lies in the way light focuses in the eye. In a normally shaped eye, the cornea and lens refract all incoming light to form a sharply focused image on the retina. However, in farsightedness, the eyeball is shorter than usual or the cornea is flatter, causing light to be focused behind the retina instead of directly on it, making it difficult to see objects up close.

Conversely, in nearsightedness (myopia), the eyeball is longer than usual or the cornea is steeper, causing light to be focused in front of the retina instead of directly on it, making it hard to see objects in the distance. Apprehending the differences between farsightedness and nearsightedness helps in formulating suitable treatment and management strategies for each condition.

Causes of Farsightedness

Farsightedness can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

  • a short eyeball

  • a flat cornea

  • age-related changes in eye structure

  • a family history of the condition

Identifying the root causes of farsightedness is fundamental to its effective management and treatment. By addressing these factors, individuals can work towards improving their vision and reducing the impact of farsightedness on their daily lives.

In the following subsections, we will explore the relationship between farsightedness and its common causes, such as:

  • a short eyeball

  • flat cornea

  • age-related changes in eye structure

  • genetic predisposition

This information will enhance your comprehension of the contributing factors to farsightedness and potential methods to tackle them.

Short eyeball or flat cornea

A short eyeball or flat cornea is a common cause of farsightedness, as it prevents light from focusing directly on the retina, resulting in blurry vision for nearby objects. The cornea is responsible for bending incoming light rays, aiding in the focus of light on the retina. When the cornea is too flat, or the distance between the front and back of the eye is too short, light is not properly focused, leading to farsightedness.

Understanding the role of the cornea and the shape of the eyeball in vision clarity can help individuals better manage their farsightedness through corrective measures like glasses or contact lenses.

Age-related changes in eye structure

Age-related changes in eye structure are a primary cause of farsightedness. As we age, the lens of the eye typically becomes less flexible and loses its ability to thicken, making it difficult to focus on nearby objects. Additionally, changes in corneal curvature can affect the refractive power of the eye, resulting in farsightedness. These structural changes are a natural part of the aging process and may require corrective lenses or other treatments for farsightedness.

It is important to be aware of the age-related changes in eye structure and their impact on vision. Regular eye exams can help detect and address farsightedness caused by these changes, ensuring optimal eye health throughout the aging process.

Family history

Genetics also play a role in the development of farsightedness, with some studies suggesting a hereditary predisposition to the condition. While specific genes responsible for farsightedness have yet to be identified, it is important to consider family history when managing the condition.

If you have a family history of farsightedness, it is recommended to schedule regular eye exams to monitor your vision and implement appropriate treatments if needed.

Identifying Symptoms of Farsightedness

Identifying the symptoms of farsightedness paves the way for prompt diagnosis and treatment. The primary indications of farsightedness include difficulty focusing on near objects, eye strain, and headaches. Moreover, children with severe farsightedness may be more prone to other ocular problems, such as crossed eyes or amblyopia.

In the following subsections, we will explore the common symptoms of farsightedness in detail, including eye strain and headaches, difficulty focusing on close objects, and signs in children. Understanding these symptoms can help individuals identify potential vision problems and seek appropriate care.

Eye strain and headaches

Farsightedness can lead to eye strain and headaches due to the difficulty in focusing on nearby objects, which can result in squinting or straining of the eyes. This can cause eyestrain and discomfort, which may manifest as headaches.

Having regular eye exams and using corrective lenses when needed can help mitigate eye strain and its effects.

Difficulty focusing on close objects

Individuals with farsightedness experience difficulty focusing on close objects due to the focus being behind the retina, resulting in close-up objects appearing blurry. This can make activities such as reading, using a smartphone, or working on a computer challenging.

Proper diagnosis and treatment, such as wearing corrective lenses, can help improve near vision and reduce the impact of farsightedness on daily life.

Signs in children

Children with farsightedness may exhibit unique signs such as eye rubbing, disinterest in reading, or holding objects very close to their face. In severe cases, farsightedness can increase the risk of developing lazy eye (amblyopia) or crossed eyes (strabismus). Early detection and intervention can lead to improved outcomes in children, hence, regular eye exams become a vital aspect of maintaining good eye health.

Diagnosis: Eye Exams and Vision Testing

Eye exams and vision testing serve as vital tools in diagnosing farsightedness and safeguarding optimal eye health. These tests involve visual acuity assessments, refraction evaluations, and eye health analyses. By conducting a comprehensive eye exam, eye care professionals can accurately diagnose farsightedness, track its progression, address underlying eye conditions, and offer guidance on proper eye care.

In the following subsections, we will delve into the various tests and assessments conducted during a typical eye exam, including visual acuity tests, refraction assessments, and eye health evaluations. Understanding these diagnostic tools can help individuals recognize the importance of regular eye exams and make informed decisions about their eye care.

Visual acuity test

A visual acuity test is a diagnostic procedure that measures an individual’s ability to identify objects at various distances. During the test, the patient is asked to read letters or symbols on a standardized chart or card held at a specific distance, usually 20 feet or 6 meters. The results of the test are used to assess the clarity and sharpness of the patient’s vision, which can help in diagnosing farsightedness and determining the appropriate treatment.

Refraction assessment

A refraction assessment, also known as a refraction test or vision test, is a procedure conducted during a routine eye examination to determine the prescription for eyeglasses or contact lenses. This assessment measures the focusing of light by the eyes and helps in diagnosing refractive errors such as farsightedness (hyperopia). By evaluating the refraction of light in the eyes, this test can identify a refractive error and provide the necessary prescription to correct it. This test involves the use of various instruments and techniques, including shining a light into the eye or using computerized equipment.

Eye health evaluation

In addition to visual acuity tests and refraction assessments, eye doctors may also conduct eye health evaluations to diagnose farsightedness. These evaluations may include assessing for signs of eye diseases or other conditions that can affect vision, such as glaucoma or cataracts.

By conducting a comprehensive eye health evaluation, eye care professionals can identify potential issues and recommend appropriate treatments to maintain good eye health and vision.

Correcting Farsightedness: Treatment Options

There are several treatment options available for farsightedness, including:

  • Eyeglasses

  • Contact lenses

  • Refractive surgery

  • Eye drops (in some cases)

Each treatment option has its own set of benefits and drawbacks, and the most suitable option will depend on individual needs and preferences. By understanding the various treatment options, individuals can make informed decisions about the best course of action to correct their farsightedness and improve their quality of life.

In the following subsections, we will explore the different treatment options for farsightedness, including eyeglasses and contact lenses, refractive surgery (LASIK, LASEK, PRK), and medication options (eye drops). This information will provide a comprehensive understanding of the available treatments and their potential benefits and risks.

Eyeglasses and contact lenses

Eyeglasses and contact lenses are the most widely used methods to correct farsightedness. They are chosen for their reliable, effective results. These corrective lenses work by using a convex lens, which is thicker at the center and thinner at the edges, to focus light directly onto the retina, thereby improving vision for nearby objects.

Regular eye exams by an eye doctor are essential to ensure the prescription remains up-to-date and continues to provide optimal vision correction.

Refractive surgery (LASIK, LASEK, PRK)

Refractive surgery is another option for treating farsightedness and involves using a programmed laser to reshape the corneal tissue. There are different types of refractive surgeries, including LASIK, LASEK, and PRK, each with its own set of benefits and risks. Refractive surgery (LASIK, LASEK, PRK)

Refractive surgery is another option for treating farsightedness and involves using a programmed laser to reshape the corneal tissue. There are different types of refractive surgeries, including LASIK, LASEK, and PRK, each with its own set of benefits and risks. However, it’s important to note that the range of farsightedness that LASIK, LASEK, and PRK can treat is quite limited, up to 3 Diopters. For patients over the age of 45, refractive lens exchange is also an option. These procedures can provide a more permanent solution to farsightedness, reducing or eliminating the need for eyeglasses or contact lenses in many cases.

Refractive Lens Exchange (RLE)

Refractive Lens Exchange, also known as lens replacement surgery or clear lens extraction, is another treatment option for correcting farsightedness. This procedure is similar to cataract surgery, where the eye’s natural lens is replaced with an artificial one. However, in the case of RLE, the lens being replaced is clear and does not have a cataract.

The procedure involves making a small incision in the cornea, through which the natural lens of the eye is removed and replaced with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). The IOL can be selected to correct farsightedness, allowing for improved vision at all distances.

RLE is typically recommended for individuals who are not suitable candidates for other refractive surgeries like LASIK, PRK, or LASEK, particularly those with high hyperopia or presbyopia. It can also be a good option for those who have early signs of cataracts, as it can prevent the need for cataract surgery in the future.

It is important to note that, like any surgical procedure, RLE carries certain risks, including infection, inflammation, retinal detachment, and changes in eye pressure. Therefore, it is crucial to discuss these risks with an eye care professional before deciding on this treatment option.

These procedures can provide a more permanent solution to farsightedness, reducing or eliminating the need for eyeglasses or contact lenses in many cases.

Medication options (eye drops)

In some cases, eye drops containing pilocarpine HCl ophthalmic solution may be utilized to treat farsightedness. This medication works by temporarily altering the shape of the lens in the eye, allowing for better focusing on nearby objects. However, it is important to note that eye drops may not be a permanent solution, and their efficacy may vary from person to person.

It is recommended to consult with an eye care professional to determine the most suitable treatment option for individual needs.

Potential Complications and Risks

Farsightedness can lead to potential complications and risks, including lazy eye and crossed eyes in children, as well as temporary side effects and rare complications from refractive surgery. Awareness of these potential complications and risks aids in making informed decisions about the management and treatment of farsightedness.

In the following subsections, we will discuss the complications of farsightedness in children, such as lazy eye and crossed eyes, as well as the risks of refractive surgery, including temporary side effects and rare complications. Understanding these potential issues can help individuals and families make informed decisions about the best course of action to address farsightedness and maintain good eye health.

Complications in children (lazy eye, crossed eyes)

Children with farsightedness may experience complications such as lazy eye (amblyopia) and crossed eyes (strabismus). Lazy eye, or amblyopia, is a condition in which one eye does not develop normal vision, while crossed eyes, or strabismus, occur when the eyes do not align properly.

Early detection and intervention are essential for better outcomes in children dealing with these complications, making regular eye exams and appropriate treatment crucial for maintaining good eye health.

Risks of refractive surgery (temporary side effects, rare complications)

While refractive surgery can provide a more permanent solution to farsightedness, it is not without risks. Potential side effects and complications include:

  • Dry eyes

  • Glare

  • Infection

  • Vision loss (in rare cases)

To minimize these risks and ensure a successful outcome, it is essential to consult with an experienced eye surgeon and follow their recommendations for pre- and post-operative care.

Tips for Maintaining Good Eye Health

Good eye health maintenance is vital for preventing complications and securing optimal vision throughout one’s lifetime. Regular eye exams, protecting the eyes from sun and strain, and implementing tips for reducing eye strain are all crucial components of good eye care. By following these recommendations, individuals can safeguard their eye health and preserve their vision.

In the following subsections, we will discuss the importance of regular eye exams, tips for protecting eyes from sun and strain, and strategies for reducing eye strain. Implementing these tips can play a significant role in maintaining good eye health and preventing complications related to farsightedness and other vision problems.

Importance of regular eye exams

Regular eye exams are vital for early detection of farsightedness and sustaining good eye health. The American Optometric Association (AOA) suggests that adults should receive an eye exam every two years to maintain optimal eye health, while children should be screened for eye disease and have their vision tested at certain ages and intervals to detect any potential issues early.

By scheduling regular eye exams, individuals can ensure that any vision problems are detected and addressed promptly, safeguarding their eye health and overall well-being.

Protecting eyes from sun and strain

Shielding the eyes from sun damage and strain is key to sustaining good eye health. Here are some tips to protect your eyes from the sun:

  • Wear sunglasses that block 100% of UV rays

  • Ensure that the sunglasses fit well

  • Wear a hat or visor for added protection

  • Apply sunscreen around the eyes

By following these tips, you can help protect your eyes from the harmful effects of the sun.

Additionally, practicing good eye hygiene, such as taking regular breaks from close-up work and blinking regularly, can help reduce eyestrain and prevent the progression of farsightedness.

Tips for reducing eye strain

To reduce eye strain, consider incorporating the following exercises into your daily routine: flexing, eye roll, the palm eye exercise, temple massage, and zooming. These exercises can help alleviate eye strain and improve eye health.

Also, adjusting your workspace, optimizing lighting, and taking regular breaks can help minimize eye strain and its effects on your vision and overall well-being.


In conclusion, farsightedness is a common vision problem that affects millions of people worldwide. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and available treatments, individuals can better manage their condition and maintain good eye health. Regular eye exams, protecting the eyes from sun and strain, and following tips for reducing eye strain can all contribute to preserving vision and preventing complications related to farsightedness. Don’t let farsightedness blur your perspective – take control of your eye health today.


Farsightedness FAQ

Q: What role does refraction play in vision?

A: Refraction is the bending of light as it passes through one medium to another. In our eyes, light rays are refracted as they pass through the cornea and the lens, focusing on the retina. The retina then converts the light into messages that are sent through the optic nerve to be interpreted by the brain.

Q: What is farsightedness (hyperopia)?

A: Farsightedness occurs when light rays entering the eye are refracted   behind the retina, rather than precisely on the retina, which is needed to produce clear vision. This refractive error can occur with a flat cornea or because the eye is too short. Farsightedness is not intuitive because the natural focusing system in the eye can compensate for uncorrected farsightedness. Farsightedness affects near vision initially but aging can cause this error to affect distance as well. This shift occurs because aging individuals lose flexibility and thus focusing power in their natural lens.

Q: What is the difference between nearsightedness and farsightedness?

A: Nearsightedness and farsightedness are both refractive errors, meaning they are both eye abnormalities that affect the eye’s ability to focus light onto the retina. Farsightedness is caused by eye shortness, causing the light to focus behind the retina. Nearsightedness occurs when light entering the eye falls short of the retina.

Farsightedness blurs close vision more than distance vision. 

Nearsightedness blurs far vision but near vision is clear.  

Q: How is farsightedness diagnosed?

A: Farsightedness is diagnosed during a comprehensive eye exam, particularly while testing refraction. A series of lenses are placed in front of the eyes, using a   phoropter. The optometrist uses a retinoscope, a handheld lighted instrument, to measure how the light focuses in your eye through each lens. The lens power is then refined based on your input regarding the clearest lens. This testing will allow the optometrist to determine your degree of refractive error. Thorough testing is important as farsightedness can be overlooked during a sight test or autorefraction. 

Q: How common is farsightedness?

A: Farsightedness is a common refractive error. Approximately, half of   glasses-wearers do so because of farsightedness.

Q: What treatment is available for farsightedness?

A: Your particular treatment will depend on a number of factors, including your condition’s severity.  Glasses and contact lenses are available options. Dr. Conlon provides laser eye surgery for mild corrections. For larger prescriptions, Dr. Conlon can perform refractive lens exchange for farsighted patients.

Q: Can you outgrow farsightedness?

A: Farsightedness is common in children as their eyeballs are too short. Often, the eyeball lengthens as a natural part of the growth process, called emmetropization, thus alleviating the farsightedness.