What is Presbyopia? An Overview of Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms, and Treatment

Does the thought of needing reading glasses or struggling to focus on near objects concern you? You’re not alone. Presbyopia affects millions of people worldwide, and it’s a natural part of the aging process. In this blog post, we’ll explore the causes, symptoms, and treatments for presbyopia, offering insights and guidance to help you better understand and manage this common vision condition.

Key Takeaways

  • Presbyopia is an age-related refractive error caused by the hardening of the eye’s lens.

  • Symptoms include difficulty reading fine print, eyestrain and blurred vision when focusing on close objects.

  • Treatment options range from eyeglasses to contact lenses and surgical procedures. Maintaining good eye health may help slow down its progression.

Understanding Presbyopia

Presbyopia is an age-related vision condition that affects the ability to focus on nearby objects due to the hardening of the eye’s lens and loss of flexibility. It typically begins to manifest shortly after the age of 40 and continues to deteriorate until approximately age 65. In some cases, premature presbyopia may occur, but the condition is different from other refractive errors like myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism, as it is specifically related to the aging process.

The Aging Eye

The natural lens of the eye becomes rigid and loses flexing capabilities as we age, complicating the process of focusing on nearby objects and correcting vision. This decline in lens flexibility is the primary cause of presbyopia. Regrettably, this is an inevitable part of aging. Although treatments can help manage the condition, there is no definitive cure.

How Presbyopia Differs from Other Refractive Errors

Presbyopia is distinct from other refractive errors like myopia, which impairs distance vision, and hyperopia, which affects individuals of all ages but causes difficulty in focusing on close-up objects.

Astigmatism, another type of refractive error, arises from a misshapen eyeball, in contrast to presbyopia, which results from lens hardening as part of the aging process.

Presbyopia is typically managed with reading glasses or multifocal lenses, whereas prescription glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery can correct other refractive errors.

Recognizing Symptoms of Presbyopia

Presbyopia symptoms encompass struggling to read fine print, experiencing eyestrain, and having blurred vision when focusing on close objects, which may intensify in low light conditions or when fatigued. Early signs of the condition involve holding reading materials farther away and experiencing difficulty focusing on close-up tasks.

As presbyopia progresses, these symptoms may become more pronounced and require measures to correct presbyopia.

Early Signs

People with presbyopia commonly experience the following symptoms:

  • Holding reading material further away to clarify the letters

  • Struggling with blurred vision at their typical reading distance

  • Having difficulty focusing on nearby objects

These early symptoms can be an important indicator of the onset of presbyopia and should prompt a visit to the eye doctor for a comprehensive eye exam.

Progression of Symptoms

Paragraph 1: Presbyopia usually starts appearing in people during their early to mid-40s and progressively worsens until around the age of 65. As the condition progresses, symptoms may include blurred vision during close-up activities or reading, eye fatigue, and headaches.

Furthermore, presbyopia can impact vision under different light levels, making it hard to focus on close objects and worsening blurry close up vision under dim lighting.

Risk Factors for Developing Presbyopia

Age, genetics, and certain medical conditions or medications that affect the eye’s lens are all considered to be risk factors for the development of presbyopia. As one advances in age, the lens in the eye becomes more rigid and less flexible, thus affecting its capability to accurately focus light onto the retina.

Research has also indicated that the VAX2 gene is associated with a heightened risk of developing presbyopia, and medical conditions such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or cardiovascular diseases may increase the risk as well.

Diagnosing Presbyopia

A comprehensive eye exam, including tests for near vision acuity, is typically used to diagnose presbyopia. These tests may include:

  • Visual acuity assessment

  • Refraction assessment

  • Visual field test

  • Color vision test

  • Testing of eye muscle movements

  • Evaluation of the retina

If you suspect presbyopia development, consulting an eye specialist for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan to correct vision is advisable.

Treatment Options for Presbyopia

Several treatment options for presbyopia include:

  • Eyeglasses, which may include reading glasses, bifocals, trifocals, or progressive lenses

  • Contact lenses, which may include multifocal lenses, monovision lenses, or a combination of both

  • Surgical procedures

These options aim to improve near vision in presbyopia patients. The choice of treatment depends on individual needs.

Surgical approaches to treat presbyopia include monovision surgery, corneal inlays, and lens replacement procedures.

Eyeglasses for Presbyopia

Presbyopia eyeglasses are customized to meet individual needs, with options like reading glasses, bifocals, trifocals, or progressive lenses. Reading glasses can be acquired without a prescription, but an eye exam should be conducted to determine the appropriate power for near vision. Bifocals, trifocals, and progressive lenses, on the other hand, typically require a prescription and offer more comprehensive vision correction, including distance and near vision.

Nonprescription reading glasses, available at retail stores like drug stores, can be a suitable solution for reading or close work at a normal reading distance. When selecting a pair of non-prescription reading glasses, it is advisable to try different degrees of magnification and choose the lowest magnification that allows comfortable reading.

Contact Lens Solutions

Contact lenses offer an alternative solution to eyeglasses for individuals with presbyopia. Bifocal contact lenses, multifocal contact lenses, and monovision contact lenses are some of the options available. Multifocal contact lenses incorporate various prescription powers in different parts of the lens, enabling clear vision at both near and far distances. Monovision contact lenses, on the other hand, fit each eye with a distinct lens – one for distance vision and the other for near vision – allowing the individual to view both far and near objects clearly without the need for reading glasses or bifocals.

Both multifocal and monovision lenses have their advantages and disadvantages. For example, multifocal lenses, including bifocal lenses, provide clear vision for various distances and excellent depth perception, but may require an adjustment period and can be more expensive.

Monovision lenses, specifically modified monovision contact lenses, provide a simpler solution but could lead to slightly reduced distance vision, especially at night, and challenges with clear perception at intermediate distances, such as arm’s length.

Surgical Approaches

For individuals desiring a long-lasting solution to presbyopia, surgical alternatives exist. Monovision surgery reshapes the cornea to provide clear far vision in one eye and close-up vision in the other. Corneal inlays are microscopic devices inserted into the cornea through a minimally invasive surgical technique to improve near vision.

Surgical Option: Refractive Lens Exchange

Refractive Lens Exchange (RLE), also known as lens replacement procedures, is a surgical treatment option for presbyopia. This procedure involves replacing the eye’s natural lens with an artificial implant. This artificial lens, also known as an intraocular lens (IOL), is designed to correct the refractive error and improve the eye’s ability to focus on nearby objects.

RLE is typically recommended for individuals with presbyopia or high degrees of farsightedness. It is a viable option for those who are not suitable candidates for other types of refractive surgery or for those who wish to reduce their dependence on glasses or contact lenses.

The procedure is performed under local anesthesia and usually takes about 15 to 20 minutes per eye. After the natural lens is removed, the surgeon inserts the IOL through a small incision. The incision is then closed, often without the need for stitches, as it heals naturally.

The recovery period for RLE is relatively short. Most patients can return to their normal activities within a week, with complete visual recovery typically occurring within a month. However, it may take several weeks for the eyes to fully adjust to the new lens and for the patient to achieve their final vision outcome.

It’s important to note that while RLE has been successfully employed for many years, like any surgical procedure, it carries potential risks and complications. These may include infection, inflammation, retinal detachment, or issues with the position of the IOL. Therefore, a thorough discussion with the eye surgeon about the benefits and risks is crucial before deciding to undergo this procedure.


Eye Drops and Medications

In addition to eyeglasses, contact lenses, and surgery, eye drops and medications are being researched and developed to help treat presbyopia. Pilocarpine eye drops (Vuity®), for example, have been approved by the FDA to reduce the size of the pupil, increasing the depth of focus and improving near vision. However, there may be potential side effects such as red eyes and headaches, as well as difficulty with night vision. Before using any new medications for presbyopia, consulting with an eye doctor is crucial.

Preventing and Slowing Down Presbyopia

While there is no verified method for avoiding presbyopia, maintaining good eye health, undergoing regular eye exams, and implementing visual training protocols to enhance near visual acuity may help impede or slow the progression of the condition.

Consuming foods rich in nutrients beneficial for eye health may contribute to preserving good vision and potentially slowing down presbyopia. Some examples of these foods include:

  • Beef

  • Oily fish

  • Citrus fruits

  • Leafy green vegetables

  • Nuts and seeds

Routine eye examinations can help detect changes in vision or eye health, potentially aiding in slowing down or reducing the progression of presbyopia.


In conclusion, presbyopia is a natural part of the aging process that affects the ability to focus on nearby objects. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and available treatment options can help individuals manage the condition and maintain their quality of life. From eyeglasses and contact lenses to surgical procedures and eye drops, there are multiple ways to address presbyopia. Regular eye exams and maintaining good eye health are essential for slowing down the progression of this common vision condition.

Freedom from Reading Glasses

The Conlon Eye Institute offers a variety of options to correct presbyopia, a natural aging process of the eye, so you can maintain a glasses-free lifestyle.



Presbyopia FAQ

Q: What causes presbyopia?

A: Normal, age-related changes in your eye’s crystalline lens and the surrounding ring of tiny muscle that allows the lens to change length/shape.

Q: What are the symptoms of presbyopia?

A: Symptoms of presbyopia include:

  • Eye strain and/or headaches after reading, working up-close, etc.
  • Difficulty reading small print
  • Fatigue following close work
  • Requiring brighter lights to read/complete close work
  • Holding reading material at an arm’s distance to read it

Q: What are the risk factors for presbyopia?

A: The primary risk for presbyopia is age as most people lose focusing ability by age forty.

Certain conditions can cause premature presbyopia:

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Diabetes
  • Farsightedness

Some medications may also increased risk of premature presbyopia:

  • Alcohol
  • Antianxiety drugs
  • Antidepressants

Q: Who gets presbyopia?

A: Presbyopia arises for individuals in their forties, but some people might not notice reading problems until their late forties or even fifties.

Q: How is presbyopia diagnosed?

A: Presbyopia is diagnosed during a comprehensive eye examination. This will include pupil dilation, to closely examine the inside of the eye.

Q: Can I prevent presbyopia?

A: There is no proven method for presbyopia prevention, as the gradual stiffening of the lens affects everyone with age. General measures to promote eye health include:

  • Regular eye examinations
  • Good control of general medical conditions
  • Wearing sunglasses
  • Avoid eye injury with protective eyeglasses
  • Eat a healthy diet
  • Ensure good lighting for reading

Q: What are the options to correct presbyopia?

A: There are a number of options to correct presbyopia. Options currently offered by the Conlon Eye Institute include refractive lens exchange (RLE) with multifocal implants or Monovision LASIK/PRK (for those people that are noncandidates for RLE).

Q: Can presbyopia occur if I have had previous LASIK surgery, and can this problem be fixed?

A: Yes, presbyopia will occur even if you have had LASIK or PRK in the past. Many patients that have had LASIK/PRK early in life to correct their distance vision remain spectacle independent, but the vast majority will require reading glasses sometime between 45-50 years of age. The Conlon Eye Institute has a number of options available that allow this group of patients to continue to remain free from external eyewear for the remainder of their lives.