Retinal photo of geographic atrophy

Geographic Atrophy (GA) is an eye condition that affects millions of people across the globe, causing progressive vision loss. With an aging population, the prevalence of this condition is on the rise, making it crucial for individuals at risk and their families to understand the causes, symptoms, treatment options, and prevention strategies for this life-altering disorder.

In this blog post, we delve into the intricacies of GA, its relationship with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), risk factors, and symptoms. We explore the diagnostic techniques used to identify and monitor the condition, current treatment options, and ongoing clinical trials, and recent developments. Moreover, we discuss the importance of mental health and living with GA, as well as future developments in research that may bring hope to those affected by this condition.

Key Takeaways

  • Geographic Atrophy is an advanced form of age-related macular degeneration that can lead to progressive vision loss.
  • Risk factors, such as genetic mutations in the complement system and smoking, enable early detection and intervention for potential deceleration of disease progression.
  • Prevention strategies include addressing modifiable risk factors like dietary supplements, low glycemic index diets, etc., as well as mental health support resources to help individuals adjust with GA.

Geographic Atrophy: An Overview

Geographic Atrophy, including geographic atrophy secondary to dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is an advanced form of AMD that leads to progressive vision loss due to retinal cell death. AMD is a leading cause of irreversible vision impairment in older adults, and GA is responsible for a significant portion of this burden. As the disease progresses, atrophic lesions develop in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), causing the loss of central vision and affecting visual function.

In the condition’s early stages, small atrophic lesions appear in the extrafoveal area of the retina. Over time, these lesions expand and grow towards the fovea, eventually impairing vision. The growth rate of these lesions varies among patients, with a median rate of 2.1 mm2/year, and some cases exhibiting rates as high as 10.2 mm2/year. It is estimated that 8 million people are dealing with GA globally. This accounts for around one fifth of all AMD sufferers..

Up to recently, no definitive treatments are available to prevent the onset or progression of GA. However, low vision rehabilitation can help individuals who have experienced vision loss due to GA or other forms of AMD by optimizing the use of their remaining vision and promoting independent living. As research advances, new therapeutic options are being explored in clinical trials, offering hope for the future.

Recent Advances

  • The FDA recently approved two groundbreaking medications for the treatment of geographic atrophy (GA) in 2023.
  • The first approval was for Syfovre (Pegcetacoplan) in February, marking a historic moment as the first-ever treatment specifically designed for GA.
  • In August, the FDA approved Izervay (avacincaptad pegol), providing an additional treatment option for GA, especially when associated with age-related macular degeneration.
  • These approvals have major implications for the management of GA.
  • They offer new hope for patients and set the stage for future innovative treatments in this field.

For effective management of GA and maintaining the highest possible quality of life, it’s vital to comprehend the risk factors, identify early symptoms, and pursue prompt diagnosis and intervention. In the following sections, we will discuss these aspects in greater detail, along with the latest developments in research and potential future treatments.

Identifying Risk Factors

Several risk factors have been identified for developing Geographic Atrophy, including:

  • Age
  • Family history
  • Smoking
  • Genetic mutations in the complement system
  • Environmental factors

Comprehending these risk factors enables early detection and intervention, which could potentially decelerate disease progression and preserve visual function.

The complement system, a part of the immune system, plays a significant role in the development of GA. Overactivation of the complement system is strongly correlated with lesion development and progression, leading to the loss of photoreceptors, RPE, and choriocapillaris as the disease advances. Identifying genetic mutations in the complement system can help assess an individual’s risk of developing GA and inform preventive measures.

Other risk factors, such as smoking, can be addressed through lifestyle modifications. Smoking cessation has been shown to reduce the risk of AMD, a primary cause of GA. Individuals can take proactive steps to lessen the chances of developing GA and maintain their eye health by comprehending and managing these risk factors.

Recognizing Symptoms

The symptoms of Geographic Atrophy may not be immediately noticeable in the early stages of the condition. However, as the disease progresses, individuals may experience:

  • a decline in visual acuity
  • reading difficulties
  • minor visual distortions
  • muted or faded colors
  • glare hypersensitivity
  • difficulty performing activities such as cooking and driving.

One of the most significant indications of GA is a decrease in contrast sensitivity, making it challenging to distinguish between objects with similar luminosity or perceive subtle details in dim light. As the fovea becomes affected, patients may experience:

  • a rapid decline in visual acuity
  • difficulty reading or recognizing faces
  • impaired depth perception
  • reduced ability to drive or perform other daily activities
  • decreased quality of life

To evaluate visual impairment in patients with GA, the following functional assessments should be utilized to detect visual function abnormalities:

  • mfERG (multifocal electroretinography)
  • Microperimetry
  • Low luminance visual acuity (LLVA)
  • Reading speed
  • Contrast sensitivity

These assessments help in determining the extent of visual impairment and monitoring the progression of the disease.

Diagnostic Techniques

Several diagnostic techniques are utilized for diagnosing geographic atrophy, including ophthalmoscopy, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). These techniques facilitate the identification of atrophic lesions and monitoring of disease progression, both of which are vital for managing the condition and preserving visual function.

Ophthalmoscopy is a diagnostic technique that allows a trained ophthalmologist to observe drusen and atrophic areas in the retina, helping identify GA secondary to age-related macular degeneration. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is the current standard imaging technology for assessing GA morphology, visualizing visible underlying choroidal vessels, and identifying abnormalities in retinal sensitivity.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is another essential diagnostic tool for GA. It reveals the thinning of the hyperreflective external band, corresponding to an attenuation of the RPE/Bruch’s complex. This is further evidenced by a deeper hyperreflectivity due to the loss of outer layers, including photoreceptors. OCT imaging has the potential to uncover the pathological mechanisms of AMD and GA, propose novel biomarkers associated with disease progression, and guide new therapeutic targets in AMD.

Healthcare providers can enhance their understanding of the disease’s progression in individual patients and devise personalized management plans to meet their specific needs by utilizing these advanced diagnostic techniques.

Disease Progression and Monitoring

The progression of Geographic Atrophy varies among patients. Some individuals experience rapid vision loss, while others may maintain relatively stable vision for a more extended period. Lesions associated with GA influence the rate of progression, and their focality, location, and size can affect the extent and speed of vision loss.

The progression rate of GA typically occurs slowly over several years, with the atrophic area increasing and visual function diminishing as the disease advances. However, some patients may experience a faster progression, which highlights the importance of monitoring the condition regularly and adapting management plans accordingly.

To determine disease progression in GA, it is recommended to monitor anatomical changes through the use of multiple imaging techniques, such as ophthalmoscopy, FAF, and OCT. Regular monitoring can help healthcare providers identify changes in lesion characteristics and adjust treatment strategies as needed to preserve the patient’s visual function and quality of life.

Comprehending the factors that affect disease progression and vigilantly monitoring the condition’s development are vital for effective management of GA. Through proactive monitoring and personalized care plans, healthcare providers can help patients maintain the best possible vision and independence.

Treatment Options and Clinical Trials

At present, there is no known way to prevent or reverse the progression of geographic atrophy. The only existing medical or surgical treatment to treat geographic atrophy is pegcetacoplan injection. The FDA has approved this treatment, offering hope for patients suffering from this challenging condition.

Several other therapeutic agents are currently in clinical trials, targeting inflammation, oxidative stress, and complement system overactivation. These potential treatments include:

  • Avacincaptad pegol
  • GSK933776
  • MC-1101
  • RN6G
  • ALK-001
  • APL2
  • MRZ-99030

Each of these agents aims to slow lesion growth and preserve retinal tissue in the long term, potentially transforming the management of GA for millions of people worldwide.

As research advances and clinical trials continue, new treatment options may become available for Geographic Atrophy. In the meantime, patients can:

  • Work with their healthcare providers to monitor their condition
  • Manage risk factors
  • Explore low vision rehabilitation and support resources to maintain independence and quality of life.

Although current treatment options for GA are limited, the ongoing research and clinical trials offer a sense of hope and optimism for the future. As new therapies emerge, such as Izervay (avacincaptad pegol), patients with this condition may have access to more effective treatments, slowing disease progression and preserving vision.

Prevention Strategies

Prevention strategies for Geographic Atrophy include:

  • Dietary supplements
  • Low glycemic index diets
  • Macular xanthophylls
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Smoking cessation
  • Maintaining a healthy BMI

Individuals can diminish their chances of developing GA and sustain their eye health by addressing risk factors and implementing preventive measures.

Research has indicated that the use of antioxidants (such as vitamins C and E), beta-carotene, zinc with copper, carotenoids (such as lutein and zeaxanthin), and omega-3 fatty acids can be beneficial in the prevention of Geographic Atrophy. These dietary supplements provide essential nutrients for ocular structures and functions, protecting against GA and other eye diseases.

A low glycemic index diet can help prevent GA by:

  • Decreasing the likelihood of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is a major cause of GA
  • Keeping blood sugar levels in balance
  • Reducing inflammation, factors that can lead to the development and progression of AMD.

In addition to dietary interventions, lifestyle factors such as smoking cessation and maintaining a healthy BMI can reduce the risk of AMD and GA. Individuals can take proactive steps to safeguard their eye health and minimize their chances of developing Geographic Atrophy by addressing these modifiable risk factors.

Living with Geographic Atrophy

Living with Geographic Atrophy can be challenging, as vision loss impacts daily activities and independence. Adapting to these changes requires support, resources, and a proactive approach to managing the condition. Low vision rehabilitation is a crucial aspect of living with GA, as it helps individuals optimize their remaining vision and maintain their autonomy.

Low vision rehabilitation involves specialized training, visual aids, and adaptive strategies to optimize visual function and compensate for the loss of central vision due to GA. Techniques that can significantly improve patients’ quality of life include:

  • Magnification
  • Contrast enhancement
  • Lighting modifications
  • Orientation and mobility training

In addition to low vision rehabilitation, individuals living with GA can benefit from various support resources such as:

  • Family and friends
  • Support groups
  • Online resources
  • Educational materials
  • Community programs

Staying connected with healthcare providers and support groups can offer valuable information, encouragement, and practical tips for living with GA, helping individuals adjust to their new circumstances and maintain their emotional well-being.

The Role of Mental Health in Geographic Atrophy

Mental health plays a significant role in managing Geographic Atrophy, as vision loss can lead to depression, anxiety, and loss of independence. Seeking professional help and support is essential for maintaining emotional well-being and adjusting to life with GA.

Individuals with GA are particularly vulnerable to developing clinical depression. This is mainly attributed to their diminished capacity to look after themselves combined with the toll of visual impairment on their lifestyles. Acknowledging the importance of mental health in the management of GA is crucial in preserving emotional well-being and fostering resilience.

Various mental health resources are available for individuals with Geographic Atrophy, including support groups, counseling services, and resources offered by organizations such as BrightFocus, WebMD, and Prevent Blindness. These resources can assist individuals in adapting to life with GA, offer advice to prevent social isolation, and provide support for managing the emotional effects of the condition.

Future Developments in Research

Future developments in Geographic Atrophy research will concentrate on:

  • Comprehending the disease’s underlying mechanisms
  • Pinpointing new therapeutic targets
  • Employing advanced imaging techniques to test innovative treatments

These advancements have the potential to transform the management of GA and improve the lives of millions of people affected by the condition.

Leading institutions and organizations, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, are at the forefront of research in this area. Recent developments in imaging techniques, such as retinal color photographs, optical coherence tomography (OCT), autofluorescence, and machine learning for segmenting GA from OCT imaging, have significantly enhanced the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease.

As research continues to advance, the future of GA management looks promising. With a deeper understanding of the disease’s mechanisms and the development of targeted therapies, patients with GA may soon have access to more effective treatments that can slow disease progression and preserve their vision.


In summary, Geographic Atrophy is a complex and challenging eye condition that affects millions of people worldwide. Understanding the risk factors, symptoms, diagnostic techniques, and current treatment options is crucial for managing the disease and preserving visual function. Prevention strategies, such as dietary modifications and lifestyle changes, can help reduce the risk of developing GA and maintain eye health.

While treatment options for GA are currently limited, ongoing research and clinical trials offer hope for the future. As we continue to learn more about the disease’s underlying mechanisms and explore new therapeutic targets, there is optimism that patients with GA will eventually have access to more effective treatments that can slow disease progression and preserve their vision.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the cause of geographic atrophy?

Geographic atrophy is the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors, as well as an immune system response (complement cascade). It is the last stage of dry age-related macular degeneration.

Can geographic atrophy be treated?

Yes, geographic atrophy can be treated with Izervay (avacincaptad pegol), which the FDA has approved for this purpose.

Is geographic atrophy reversible?

Geographic atrophy is not reversible, but its progression can be slowed with treatments like Izervay.

Is geographic atrophy rare?

Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced dry form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which affects up to 20% of people with AMD. With 1 million reported cases in the US and 5 million worldwide, GA is far from rare and poses a significant threat to vision for people aged 50 and older. GA is the leading cause of severe vision loss in people over the age of 50, and it is estimated that the number of people affected by GA will double by 2050. Treatment options are limited, and there is currently no cure for GA. However, early


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  5. Geographic Atrophy: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment – Medical News Today
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Photo graph of Dr. Conlon operating with loops on.

Dr. M. Ronan Conlon started his career in the field of ophthalmology at the same time as the development of refractive eye surgery in Canada. In 1996, he brought laser technology to Canada from Germany, which allowed him to perform laser eye surgery before it was available in the United States. With the establishment of the Conlon Eye Institute, Dr. Conlon has performed more than 40,000 refractive procedures and has advanced his expertise in LASIK and refractive cataract surgery.

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