Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Age Related Macular Degeneration Cause: Uncovering the Causes

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a prevalent eye condition that can severely impact the quality of life for those affected. As a leading cause of vision loss in individuals over 50, understanding AMD and the age related macular degeneration cause is crucial for early detection, prevention, and treatment. This blog post aims to provide a comprehensive overview of AMD, its causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and coping strategies, empowering you to take control of your eye health and maintain your independence.

Key Takeaways

  • Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is an eye disease that can cause irreversible vision loss in individuals over the age of 50.

  • Causes are thought to be a combination of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors, with family history playing an important role.

  • Early detection and preventive measures such as maintaining a healthy lifestyle can help reduce risk. Treatment options vary depending on severity while coping strategies for vision loss exist.

Understanding Age-Related Macular Degeneration

AMD is a progressive eye disease that primarily causes irreversible, serious vision loss in individuals over 50. This condition affects central vision by damaging the macula, the central part of the retina responsible for sharp, clear images. Common symptoms of AMD include blurred or diminished central vision, difficulty with reading, driving, and recognizing faces. The condition is typically seen in individuals aged 50 or older, as they have a higher likelihood of developing macular degeneration. While AMD mainly impacts central vision, peripheral vision remains unaffected.

AMD is a medical condition which has two forms: dry and wet macular degeneration. Both affect one’s vision, however, the wet form is more serious and has no current cure. Dry macular degeneration is the more common form, characterized by a slow progression and the accumulation of drusen under the macula. Wet macular degeneration is less common but tends to progress more rapidly, due to the growth of abnormal blood vessels beneath the retina. Detecting and intervening early in AMD is key to managing the disease and maintaining vision.

Causes of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Although the exact causes of AMD are not fully understood, it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic factors, environmental influences, and lifestyle choices such as smoking, diet, and obesity.

The subsequent subsections will explore these contributing factors and their impact on the development of AMD in depth.

Genetic Factors

It has been found that certain genes, along with heredity, play a significant role in increasing the risk of developing AMD. Some of the genes associated with AMD include:

  • ABCA4

  • APOE

  • ARMS2

  • ASPM

  • BEST1

  • C2

  • C3

  • CFH

These genetic alterations contribute to the risk of developing AMD through their involvement in various processes, such as transporting and processing high-density lipoprotein (HDL).

Family history is an important risk factor to consider, as individuals with a parent affected by AMD are more likely to develop the condition themselves. Recent studies continue to uncover new genetic associations, highlighting the importance of ongoing research to better understand the genetic component of AMD.

Environmental Influences

Research suggests that environmental factors such as exposure to sunlight, air pollution, and radiation may contribute to the development of AMD. Some specific factors include:

  • Air pollution, which has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammation in the eyes, leading to pathological changes associated with AMD.

  • Living in areas with poor air quality, which has been associated with an increased risk of developing AMD.

  • Smoking cigarettes, a form of air pollution, which has also been associated with an increased risk of developing AMD.

Although the exact relationship between radiation exposure and AMD remains to be conclusively established, research indicates a potential correlation between the two. Further research is needed to fully comprehend the relationship and identify potential preventative measures.

Lifestyle Choices

Several lifestyle factors including smoking, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity, can notably influence the risk of AMD. Smoking is the largest modifiable risk factor for AMD, causing damage to the retina and increasing the likelihood of developing the condition. Quitting smoking can lower the risk.

A lack of physical activity has also been associated with an increased risk of AMD. Regular exercise is important for reducing the chances of early and late AMD. In addition, excessive alcohol consumption can elevate the risk of AMD, further highlighting the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

Types of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Wet and Dry

As previously stated, AMD primarily presents in two forms: dry and wet. Dry macular degeneration is the more common form and occurs when small yellow protein deposits called drusen form beneath the macula, leading to its drying and thinning. Although the exact cause of dry AMD remains unknown, both genetic and environmental factors are believed to contribute to the risk of individuals to develop macular degeneration.

Wet macular degeneration, on the other hand, occurs when abnormal blood vessels begin to grow beneath the retina. This growth can cause the blood vessels to leak blood and fluid, leading to swelling and damage to the macula. As macular degeneration develops, wet AMD often results in more pronounced vision impairment than dry AMD.

While both forms of AMD can lead to severe vision loss, early detection and treatment can help slow the progression of the disease. It is essential to monitor any changes in vision and seek professional help if symptoms of vision loss arise.

Identifying Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Identifying the risk factors for AMD is vital for facilitating early detection and prevention. As previously discussed, the risk factors for AMD include:

  • Age

  • Family history

  • Smoking

  • High blood pressure

  • Diet high in saturated fats

The risk of developing AMD increases with age, and individuals with a family history of the condition are more likely to develop it.

Smoking is the most significant modifiable risk factor for AMD, damaging the retina and increasing the likelihood of developing the condition. High blood pressure has also been linked to an increased risk of AMD, as it may limit the amount of oxygen reaching the eyes. Lastly, a diet high in saturated fats has been associated with an increased risk of AMD, further emphasizing the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

Symptoms and Early Detection of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Detecting AMD early can significantly slow its progression and help preserve vision. Common symptoms of AMD include:

  • Gradual or abrupt changes in vision quality

  • Distorted straight lines

  • Unfocused or hazy vision

  • Difficulty recognizing familiar faces

  • A dark, vacant region in the center of vision

These symptoms are often indicative of the presence of drusen, small yellow deposits in the retina that serve as an early sign of AMD.

AMD can affect one or both eyes, with varying levels of severity. If you notice any changes in your vision, particularly if you are over 60, it is important to consult an eye doctor for a comprehensive examination.

Diagnosing Age-Related Macular Degeneration

The typical diagnostic process for AMD involves:

  • A standard and a dilated eye examination, both conducted by an ophthalmologist

  • Use of an Amsler grid, a tool designed to detect changes in central vision, to assess for modifications in vision quality

  • Additional tests, such as visual acuity testing and pupil dilation, to evaluate the clarity and sharpness of a person’s central vision and detect any alterations or diminution of vision caused by AMD.

In some cases, more advanced imaging tests, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) or fluorescein angiography, may be performed to obtain a more detailed view of the retina and optic nerve. These diagnostic tests enable early detection, facilitating prompt treatment and preservation of vision.

Treatment Options for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

The treatment options for AMD, including macular degeneration treatments, are determined by the type and severity of the condition. For wet AMD, the primary treatment is the injection of medications called anti-VEGF agents, which help to reduce the growth of abnormal blood vessels and slow the progression of the disease. These medications are administered through direct injection into the affected eye, with a very fine needle and under the cover of numbing (anesthetic) eyedrops to ensure minimal discomfort. The administration of anti-VEGF treatment is typically conducted over a period of time, necessitating multiple injections to sustain the treatment outcome.

For dry AMD, treatment options may include visual rehabilitation programs and low-vision devices, which can help individuals adapt to their vision loss and maintain their independence. In some cases, laser therapy may be employed as an additional treatment option if deemed necessary.

Working closely with your eye doctor to devise a treatment plan tailored to your specific needs and circumstances is critical. Regular follow-up appointments and ongoing monitoring of your condition will be necessary to ensure the best possible outcomes.

Preventive Measures for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Preventing AMD involves regular eye exams, a healthy lifestyle, and protection from harmful UV rays. Individuals aged 60 or older should receive a comprehensive eye exam and follow up with regular eye exams every one to two years to detect AMD in its early stages and facilitate timely treatment.

Consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, fish, nuts, and seeds can help promote eye health and prevent the onset of AMD. Additionally, wearing sunglasses that block both UVA and UVB rays, avoiding direct exposure to sunlight, and donning a wide-brimmed hat can help protect eyes from harmful UV rays.

Coping with Vision Loss from Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Although dealing with vision loss from AMD can pose challenges, a variety of strategies and resources can assist individuals in adapting and preserving their independence. Utilizing low-vision aids, such as magnifying glasses, large-print books, and talking clocks, can assist in performing daily tasks more easily.

Seeking support from professionals and loved ones can also be beneficial in managing vision loss. Professionals can provide counseling, emotional support, and low vision rehabilitation services, which may include instruction on how to use assistive devices and tactics for maximizing remaining vision. Local support groups can be found through organizations such as the Macular Society, MD Support, and the American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS).

Staying engaged in daily activities and making adjustments to the home environment, such as installing brighter lighting, using contrasting colors for improved visibility, and eliminating tripping hazards, can help individuals with AMD continue to lead fulfilling lives.


In conclusion, age-related macular degeneration is a prevalent and potentially debilitating condition that affects the central vision of individuals over the age of 50. Understanding the causes, risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for AMD is crucial in promoting early detection and prevention. By taking preventive measures such as regular eye exams, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, and protecting eyes from harmful UV rays, individuals can reduce their risk of developing AMD and preserve their vision for years to come.


Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) FAQ

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Q: What is Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)?

A: AMD is a macular disease, marked by cell death, which causes central vision deterioration. The macula is part of the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eye. Located in the center of the retina, the macula consists of photoreceptors and is responsible for processing sharp, direct vision. AMD affects the macula’s light-sensing functionality, thus disrupting the ability to distinguish objects, and perform activities, such as reading and driving.

Q: What causes AMD?

A: Macular degeneration is caused by aging-related macular nerve damage. Although experts are still studying the link between aging and this damage, the process leading to this damage has been broken down by AMD type.

There are two types of AMD:

Dry macular degeneration is caused by aging-related macular cells breakdown. Waste deposits from this breakdown accumulate and eventually this buildup damages the macula. This is the most common form of AMD.

Wet macular degeneration occurs when an abnormally high growth factor causes new, fragile blood vessels to form under the macula. These vessels often break, leaking blood and fluid. This leakage inhibits the macula’s cells’ light-sensitive functioning, causing blind spots in central vision.

This form is much rarer than dry AMD.

Q: Who is at-risk for AMD?

A: Advanced age is the strongest risk factor for AMD, typically affecting individuals over fifty. AMD also exhibits a genetic link. Increased likelihood of developing the disease occurs in individuals with an afflicted immediate family member. Another demographic risk factor is gender. Females are more likely to develop AMD, which may be due to their elongated life expectancy, meaning females spend more time in advanced age. Race is also a factor. Caucasians are most likely to develop the disease, perhaps due to the association with lighter eye pigmentation. Lifestyle habits known to impact retinal oxygen flow are also risk factors. Such habits include smoking, high-glycemic diets, and inactivity.

Q: Can AMD be prevented?

A: With age as the greatest risk factor, there is no guaranteed AMD prevention. But maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise and a balanced vitamin-rich diet, can lower your risk. AMD’s link with smoking is proportional to the habit’s duration, so smoking cessation also lowers your risk. Regular eye exams to ensure early detection and treatment, especially for high-risk individuals, can prevent vision loss from the disease.

Q: How is AMD detected?

A: Ophthalmologists use the following tests to diagnose AMD and confirm its stage of advancement. As AMD is incurable, early detection is essential to prevent vision loss.

Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam. A dilated eye exam assesses your retina, including the macula. Dr. Conlon can perform this exam and observe any changes in the back of the eye, looking primarily for the pigment changes in the macula, and the presence of drusen.

Drusen are one of the most common early signs of AMD. Drusen are tiny clumps of lipid waste deposited at the bottom of the retina. They do not cause AMD, but are linked with AMD development.

Amsler Grid. Often used in AMD detection, this grid identifies vision loss areas. The square-shaped grid consists of vertical and horizontal lines, aligning to form perfect squares. A patient focuses on a large dot in the middle of the grid. If the grid appears distorted, blurry, wavy or broken, this is an indication of AMD. Repeating this test is useful in follow-up, to monitor the progression of AMD.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). This technique captures cross-sectional retinal images using light waves. These images measure retinal layer thickness, and identify drusen, new blood vessels and hemorrhaging. Ophthalmologists use OCT to diagnose macular degeneration and to identify the most suitable treatment options based on the findings.

If necessary, Dr. Conlon can also refer patients to a retinal specialist for more extensive testing, including Fluorescein Angiography, which identifies specific leakages.

Q: What symptoms does AMD cause?

A: AMD causes subtle vision loss, resulting in few noticeable early symptoms. The first symptom is usually blurriness in the centre of your vision. For wet AMD, an early symptom is the waving of straight lines. The condition progressively causes blurriness overcome by dark spots, causing central vision loss in severe cases. Due to the tenuous nature of early-stage AMD, routine eye examinations, conducted by Dr. Conlon and associated Retinal Specialists, are essential for detection.

Q: Does AMD cause blindness?

A: AMD does not cause total blindness. Due to the macula’s position and functioning, macular degeneration primarily causes central vision loss. AMD usually does not interfere with peripheral vision, even in advanced cases.

Q: How is AMD treated?

A: Current treatment focuses on delaying disease progression but does not entirely cure AMD. The course of treatment depends on the type of AMD present.

Dry Macular Degeneration. No treatment can prevent vision loss in advanced stage dry AMD. Treatment can delay the progression of the condition’s earlier stages. Nutritional intervention has proven effective in this regard, with effective supplements including vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and zinc oxide. Please consult Dr. Conlon for supplementation advice.

Wet Macular Degeneration. Aimed at stopping the formation of abnormal blood vessels, treatments for this form of AMD include laser surgery, photodynamic therapy, and anti-VEGF therapy eye injections.

Q: Can treatment restore vision?

A: Treatment can delay or prevent further vision loss, but cannot reverse any loss that has already occurred. Prevention is key in managing AMD.