My name is Dr. Ronan Conlon, and I’m an ophthalmologist from Saskatchewan who founded the Conlon Eye Institute ( Have you ever wondered about the people who devote their lives to restoring and enhancing the intricate structures surrounding our eyes?

Well, I’m one of them. As an oculoplastic surgeon, I work at the intersection of ophthalmology and plastic surgery, providing comprehensive care for functional and cosmetic concerns. In this blog post, I’ll guide you through my world, sharing insights about my specialized training and the various procedures I perform as an oculoplastic surgeon.

I’ve dedicated my career to helping patients achieve their vision goals through surgical techniques and treatments tailored to their unique needs. From blepharoplasty to repairing eyelid disorders, no case is too complex. My passion is restoring confidence and optimizing sight for those who trust me. I hope to provide an inside look at this fascinating subspecialty – the art and science of oculoplastic surgery.

Key Takeaways

  • Oculoplastic surgeons possess specialized knowledge and skills to diagnose and treat conditions affecting the eyes.
  • Ophthalmic plastic surgery is a comprehensive approach for both functional & cosmetic issues related to the eye area, while reconstructive eye surgery addresses eyelid malposition, ptosis & orbital tumors.
  • Selecting an experienced board certified oculoplastic surgeon with a good reputation ensures optimal outcomes. Non-surgical treatments such as injectables or laser/light therapies provide alternative solutions but with different risks associated.

Understanding the Oculoplastic Surgeon’s Specialization

Oculoplastic surgeons are medical specialists with a unique skill set that allows them to perform plastic and reconstructive surgery of the structures surrounding the eye, including the eye socket. This field requires a deep understanding of both ophthalmology and plastic surgery to address a wide range of issues, from functional concerns like droopy upper eyelids to cosmetic enhancements such as eyelid surgery. They are an integral part of a medical team that includes facial plastic surgeons, ophthalmologists, aestheticians, nurses, and other staff.

Speaking from personal experience, the journey to becoming an oculofacial plastic surgeon is intense and rigorous. It involved completing a three-year post-residency fellowship for me. I spent one-year studying ocular pathology at the prestigious Harvard University and then two years mastering the art and science of oculoplastic surgery at the University of Iowa.

This rigorous training ensures that oculoplastic surgeons, like myself, possess the specialized knowledge and skills to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions affecting the eyes and surrounding facial tissues.

Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery

Ophthalmic plastic surgery is a fascinating niche within the field of oculoplastic surgery that focuses on the eyelids, tear ducts, and orbital structures. This medicine branch aims to address functional and aesthetic issues related to periorbital and facial tissues, such as entropion (inward-turning eyelids) and ectropion (outward-turning eyelids). In addition to restoring normal function and appearance, ophthalmic plastic surgery also offers cosmetic benefits for patients who desire a more youthful or rejuvenated appearance.

Surgical interventions, such as excision of skin and suturing of the eyelids, are employed to correct entropion or ectropion and address issues related to the lacrimal tear system. Procedures like blepharoplasty (eyelid surgery) not only enhance the appearance of the eye area but also address functional concerns such as drooping eyelids, blocked tear ducts, and orbital fractures.

Overall, ophthalmic plastic surgery offers patients a comprehensive approach to addressing both functional and cosmetic surgery concerns related to the eyes and around the eye area.

Oculofacial Plastic Surgeons

Oculofacial plastic surgeons are ophthalmologists who have obtained additional training in plastic and reconstructive surgery, allowing them to provide comprehensive care for eye-related issues. Their unique skill set enables them to perform a wide range of oculoplastic procedures, including:

  • Eyelid biopsies
  • Repair of eyelids post-skin cancer surgery
  • Treatments for tear ducts and lacrimal systems
  • Addressing conditions such as uncontrolled blinking and one-sided facial spasms

The oculoplastic surgery process involves several steps:

  1. Initial consultation and evaluation
  2. Preparation for surgery
  3. The surgical procedure and anesthesia
  4. Post-operative care and recovery

Evaluating a prospective oculoplastic surgeon’s board certification, experience, and reputation is a key step in choosing a medical professional who can offer the best possible outcome for your specific condition.

Oculoplastic Surgery in Canada

Oculoplastic or oculofacial surgery is a subspecialty of ophthalmology that deals with the reconstruction of the eye and structures around the eye. In Canada, oculoplastic surgery is performed by ophthalmologists who have completed additional specialized training in this field after their general ophthalmology residency.

The Canadian Oculoplastic Society (CSOPS) represents over 80 oculoplastic surgeons across Canada who have undergone rigorous training and experience in highly specialized fields like eyelids, orbit, nasolacrimal system and facial aesthetics. CSOPS provides education and advocacy for the specialty and helps connect patients with qualified oculoplastic surgeons in their region.

Common Oculoplastic Procedures

Oculoplastic surgeons specialize in a variety of procedures, including:

  • Blepharoplasty
  • Ptosis surgery
  • Eyelid reconstruction
  • Orbital surgery

Additionally, they are skilled in treating tear duct and lacrimal system disorders, ensuring that patients receive comprehensive care for both functional and cosmetic concerns.

For optimal patient outcomes, oculoplastic surgeons meticulously evaluate each case, recommending procedures that best align with the patient’s needs and objectives. This personalized approach ensures that patients receive the highest level of care and achieve optimal results in both appearance and function.

Reconstructive Eye Surgery

Reconstructive eye surgery serves as a vital solution for functional issues like eyelid malposition, ptosis (droopy upper eyelids), and orbital tumors. By correcting these issues, reconstructive eye surgery not only improves the appearance of the eye area but also enhances the overall function and quality of life for patients. For example, treatment of ptosis involves repositioning the levator aponeurosis on the tarsal plate and adjusting the upper eyelid height to raise the eyelid above the pupil, restore symmetry, and eliminate fatigue associated with ptosis, ultimately helping to restore normal function.

Surgical treatments for orbital tumors encompass a range of procedures, including biopsy, tumor resection, orbital exenteration, orbital decompression, and orbital reconstruction. Reconstructive surgery is also used to address eyelid malposition, such as entropion (inward-turning eyelids) and ectropion (outward-turning eyelids), by repositioning or reconstructing the eyelid with procedures like eyelid-tightening surgery, tarsal strip canthoplasty, and blepharoplasty.

Cosmetic Eye Enhancements

Cosmetic eye enhancements, such as upper and lower blepharoplasty, brow lifts, and facial rejuvenation procedures, are designed to improve the aesthetics of the eye area and help patients feel more confident in their appearance. Blepharoplasty, or eyelid surgery, involves removing excess and puffy skin around the eyes, restoring a youthful appearance and potentially improving vision. In upper blepharoplasty, extra skin is removed from the upper eyelids, while lower blepharoplasty addresses issues with the lower eyelids.

Aside from purely cosmetic reasons, these procedures can also benefit patients with functional concerns, such as sagging eyelids that may impede vision. By addressing both functional and aesthetic concerns, cosmetic eye enhancements allow patients to achieve their desired appearance while improving their quality of life.

Tear Duct and Lacrimal System Treatments

Tear duct and lacrimal system disorders can significantly impact a patient’s quality of life, leading to symptoms such as excessive tearing, redness, and recurrent eye infections. Oculoplastic surgeons specialize in treating these disorders, employing procedures like dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) and Jones tube placement, also known as tear duct surgery, to address blockages in the tear duct and restore normal tear drainage.

By addressing these functional concerns, oculoplastic surgeons not only alleviate the symptoms associated with tear duct and lacrimal system disorders but also help prevent potential complications such as infection, inflammation, and vision loss. Through specialized expertise and a comprehensive approach to treatment, oculoplastic surgeons can significantly improve the quality of life for patients suffering from these conditions.

The Oculoplastic Surgery Process

The oculoplastic surgery process is a carefully planned and executed series of steps, designed to ensure the best possible outcomes for patients. This process typically includes an initial consultation and evaluation, during which the surgeon assesses the patient’s medical history, vision, and eye health and recommends appropriate treatment or surgery.

Following the consultation, patients will prepare for surgery by stopping certain medications, undergoing necessary tests, and following specific pre-operative instructions. During the surgical procedure itself, the surgeon will utilize local or general anesthesia depending on the specific operation being performed. Incisions are typically made in the natural folds of the eyelids or in the crease of the upper eyelid, helping to minimize visible scarring.

After surgery, the patient will receive post-operative care instructions and attend follow-up appointments to ensure proper healing and optimal results.

Initial Consultation and Evaluation

During the initial consultation and evaluation for oculoplastic surgery, the surgeon will conduct a comprehensive evaluation to determine the most appropriate treatment or surgery for the patient’s specific needs. A full medical history will be taken, and various tests may be conducted to evaluate the patient’s ocular health. This appointment provides the patient with an opportunity to ask questions and discuss their goals and expectations for the surgery, ensuring that they are well-informed about the process and potential outcomes.

The evaluation process for oculoplastic surgery is crucial for the success of the procedure. It allows the surgeon to:

  • Assess the patient’s overall medical condition
  • Recognize any pre-existing medical conditions or allergies that may affect the surgery or recovery
  • Determine the patient’s eligibility for the procedure

By gathering this information, the surgeon can create an individualized treatment plan tailored to the patient’s specific needs and goals, helping to ensure optimal results.

Preparing for Surgery

Thorough preparation for oculoplastic surgery aids in streamlining the procedure and mitigating potential complications. This may involve discontinuing certain medications, such as blood-thinning medications, to reduce the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Patients are also advised to stop smoking 2 to 3 weeks before and after surgery, as nicotine and tobacco smoke can impede the healing process and increase the risk of complications.

In addition to these precautions, patients may need to undergo certain tests prior to surgery, such as a comprehensive eye exam, blood tests, or imaging studies. Following the surgeon’s pre-operative instructions carefully will help ensure the best possible outcome and a smooth recovery process.

Surgical Procedure and Anesthesia

The surgical procedure itself varies depending on the specific operation being performed, such as lower eyelid surgery, but generally involves:

  • Making incisions in the natural folds of the eyelids or in the crease of the upper eyelid, minimizing the visibility of any resulting scars
  • Utilizing specialized surgical instruments to remove or reposition tissues
  • Ultimately improving the appearance and function of the eye area

Anesthesia is a critical component of the surgical process, as it ensures patient comfort and safety during the procedure. Depending on the specific operation, local or general anesthesia may be used. Local anesthesia numbs the area to reduce pain, while general anesthesia induces sleep, allowing the patient to remain unconscious and pain-free during the surgery. The type of anesthesia used will be determined by the surgeon based on the patient’s specific needs and the complexity of the procedure.

Post-Operative Care and Recovery

After oculoplastic surgery, diligent post-operative care is key to promoting proper healing and achieving the best results. Patients will receive instructions for:

  • Pain management
  • Swelling reduction
  • Activity restrictions
  • Follow-up appointments to monitor progress

During the recovery process, it is important for patients to be vigilant for any signs of infection or complications, such as:

  • Increased swelling
  • Redness
  • Fluid draining from the eye
  • Worsening of vision or experiencing double vision

If any of these symptoms occur, patients should promptly contact their oculoplastic surgeon for further evaluation and treatment.

By closely following post-operative care instructions and attending all follow-up appointments, patients can help ensure a smooth recovery and achieve the best possible results from their oculoplastic surgery.

Selecting the Right Oculoplastic Surgeon

Selecting a suitable oculoplastic surgeon is pivotal in attaining the most favorable outcome for your unique condition. Factors to consider when selecting an oculoplastic surgeon include:

  • Board certification demonstrates that the surgeon has attained the highest standards of knowledge, skill, and ethical conduct in oculoplastic surgery.
  • Experience: Look for a surgeon with experience performing the specific procedure you require.
  • Reputation: Research the surgeon’s reputation and read reviews from previous patients to ensure they have a track record of providing quality and secure care.

By considering these factors, you can make an informed decision and choose an oculoplastic surgeon who is best suited to meet your needs.

To assess a surgeon’s experience and reputation, patients can:

  • Verify their board certification
  • Peruse patient testimonials and reviews
  • Request referrals from reliable sources
  • Consult with other healthcare professionals

By carefully evaluating these factors, patients can make an informed decision and select an oculoplastic surgeon who will provide the highest level of care and achieve optimal results.


In Canada, aspiring oculoplastic surgeons first complete a residency in Ophthalmology and obtain their certification from the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Following this, they embark on a fellowship in Oculoplastic Surgery, typically lasting 1-2 years. This rigorous training pathway ensures that the surgeon has the specialized training and expertise to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions affecting the eyes and surrounding facial tissues.

To verify a surgeon’s certification, patients can:

  • Consult the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada website
  • Search for the surgeon’s board certification on their website
  • Request written verification from the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada office
  • Check with the Provincial Licencing Body for additional verification

It is important to note that certification is voluntary, but it provides patients with a valuable indication of the surgeon’s expertise in oculoplastic surgery.

Experience and Reputation

The experience and reputation of a surgeon significantly influence the level of care and the outcomes for patients undergoing oculoplastic surgery. Studies have shown that patient satisfaction and experience are generally higher when the surgeon has an established positive reputation. In addition, a surgeon’s professional reputation has been identified as a major factor in a patient’s decision when selecting a plastic surgeon.

To evaluate an oculoplastic surgeon’s experience and reputation, patients can verify their board certification, read patient testimonials and reviews, and request referrals from reliable sources. By taking these steps, patients can ensure that they select a skilled and experienced oculoplastic surgeon who will provide the highest level of care and achieve the best possible results.

Non-Surgical Oculoplastic Treatments

In addition to surgical procedures, several non-surgical oculoplastic treatments are available that can provide cosmetic enhancement or functional improvement without surgery. These treatments include:

  • Injectable treatments, such as dermal fillers and botulinum toxin (Botox) injections
  • Laser and light therapies for addressing skin texture, tone, and pigmentation issues
  • Treating certain functional eye disorders

Non-surgical oculoplastic treatments bring several benefits, including a less invasive approach, quicker recovery times, and reduced risks and side effects compared to their surgical counterparts. However, it is important to note that non-surgical treatments may not provide the same level of results as surgical procedures and may need to be repeated periodically to maintain their effects.

Injectable Treatments

Injectable treatments, such as hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers and botulinum toxin (Botox) injections, offer a non-surgical solution for addressing wrinkles, volume loss, and facial asymmetry. Fillers are used to restore volume and fill in areas that have lost fat or have sagging skin, such as the cheeks, brows, and temples, while Botox works by inhibiting nerve impulses to the muscles, effectively paralyzing them and diminishing the visibility of wrinkles and fine lines.

These treatments are typically administered through gradual injections with small gauge needles to reduce discomfort and can provide noticeable results within a short period. However, the effects of injectable treatments are temporary, and patients may need to undergo repeat treatments to maintain their desired appearance.

Laser and Light Therapies

Laser and light therapies offer non-surgical options for improving skin texture, tone, and pigmentation, as well as treating certain functional eye disorders such as retinal tears or detachment, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, and dry eye. By targeting specific skin concerns and functional eye issues, these therapies can provide significant improvements without surgery.

While laser and light therapies can offer numerous benefits, they also come with potential side effects and risks, such as:

  • bleeding
  • pain
  • infection
  • skin changes

It is important for patients to discuss these risks with their oculoplastic surgeon and carefully consider their options before undergoing any non-surgical oculoplastic treatments.


In conclusion, oculoplastic surgery is a unique and specialized field that combines the expertise of ophthalmology and plastic surgery to address a wide range of functional and cosmetic concerns related to the eyes and surrounding structures. From reconstructive eye surgery and cosmetic eye enhancements to non-surgical treatments such as injectable therapies and laser and light therapies, oculoplastic surgeons provide comprehensive care to improve the appearance, function, and overall quality of life for their patients. By carefully selecting the right oculoplastic surgeon and following their expert guidance, patients can achieve optimal results and enjoy a renewed sense of confidence in their appearance.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the difference between a plastic surgeon and an oculoplastic surgeon?

A plastic surgeon is trained to perform cosmetic surgical procedures on the whole body, while an oculoplastic surgeon is a specialist for eye-related surgery and the facial regions around the eye.

What is the difference between an oculoplastic surgeon and an ophthalmologist?

Ophthalmologists focus on treating diseases of the eye, while oculoplastic surgeons specialize in the eyelids and face after completing extra training beyond that required for an ophthalmologist.

When should you see an oculoplastic surgeon?

If you have aesthetic or functional issues with your eyelids, orbit, or tear duct system, it is recommended to consult a board-certified oculoplastic surgeon for help.

What are the benefits of oculoplastic surgery?

Oculoplastic surgery can reduce wrinkles, improve appearance, and make you look younger, giving you a more youthful, refreshed appearance. It can also expand your field of vision, remove excess tissue and fat, and tighten muscles, leading to a happier, more confident you.

Can non-surgical treatments provide the same level of results as surgical procedures?

Non-surgical treatments can offer noticeable improvements but may not be able to deliver the same level of results as surgery, and their effects may need to be repeated over time.


  1. What is an Oculoplastic Surgeon? – American Academy of Ophthalmology
  2. Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery – American Academy of Ophthalmology
  3. Oculoplastic Surgery – American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
  4. What is Oculoplastic Surgery? – Healthline
  5. What to Expect From Oculoplastic Surgery – Verywell Health
  6. Oculoplastic Surgery: What You Need to Know – WebMD
  7. Oculoplastic Surgery: Purpose, Procedure, Risks, Recovery – Medical News Today
  8. Oculoplastic, Orbital and Reconstructive Surgery – Johns Hopkins Medicine


Photo graph of Dr. Conlon operating with loops on.

Dr. M. Ronan Conlon started his career in the field of ophthalmology at the same time as the development of refractive eye surgery in Canada. In 1996, he brought laser technology to Canada from Germany, which allowed him to perform laser eye surgery before it was available in the United States. With the establishment of the Conlon Eye Institute, Dr. Conlon has performed more than 40,000 refractive procedures and has advanced his expertise in LASIK and refractive cataract surgery. However, Dr. Conlon’s pursuit of excellence didn’t stop there. He embarked on a 2-year ASOPRS (American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery) approved fellowship in Oculoplastic Surgery at the prestigious University of Iowa. This intensive training program, recognized for its rigorous academic and clinical standards, allowed Dr. Conlon to deepen his expertise in the subspecialty of oculoplastics.

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